Diabetes and Early Kidney Disease Detection
Discovery the relationship between diabetes and kidney disease
More than 400 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes1. Of these, 20-30% will develop kidney disease, which is the most common complication of diabetes2. In early stages of kidney disease, early detection is key since there are typically no signs or symptoms and the disease is treatable and reversible.3
Cystatin C - Sensitivity and Specificity When Assessing Renal Function
Cystatin C is used as an alternative to creatinine and creatinine clearance to screen for and monitor kidney dysfunction. Studies demonstrate that serial measurements of serum Cystatin C provide an accurate estimation of trends in kidney function in patients with diabetes and normal or elevated glomerular filtration rate (GFR).3
Patients who may benefit most from GFR assessment in using Cystatin C include those at high risk for chronic kidney disease where monitoring is required, including diabetics.
1. World Health Organization (who.org)
2. International Diabetes Federation (idf.org/diabetes)
3. Perkins J Am Soc Nephrol 16: 1404-1412, 2005
Urinary Albumin (Microalbumin)
Determination of urinary albumin is a valuable tool for the detection of diabetic nephropathy. Early detection of microalbuminuria in diabetics is critical because immediate intervention can slow the progression of disease.
Siemens' sensitive urinary albumin assay is a valuable tool for the detection of microalbuminuria as an aid in the detection of diabetic nephropathy. The International Diabetes Federation and American Diabetes Association recommend that annual urinary albumin testing of patients without clinical proteinuria should begin in pubertal or postpubertal individuals five years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and at the time of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
Additionally, studies have suggested that postmenopausal women with microalbuminuria are at increased risk for cardiac mortality, and their urinary albumin levels should also be monitored yearly.4
4. Cagliero E et al. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 1785-89
Albumin:Creatinine (A:C) Ratio Results
An additional tool for more accurate assessment of microalbuminuria is the detection of albumin and creatinine levels in urine, providing an albumin-to-creatinine ratio (A:C) that allows treatment to begin sooner. The American Diabetes Association recommends A:C ratio testing for nephropathy as the preferred method over albumin alone to reduce the risk of false-negative and false positive results that may be due to varying urine concentration5.
5. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2008; 31 (suppl 1): S29.